Questions After Discharge

When do I take my baby to the doctor?

You should see your baby's doctor within 2 weeks after you take your baby home unless your doctor has stated otherwise.

Who can I call if I have a question once my baby is home from the NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit)?

Your baby's doctor will want you to call if you have any questions.

You can also contact the NICU where your baby was the past weeks or months.

Home Temperature and Dressing Your Baby

How warm should I keep the temperature in my house?

A low to mid-70's temperature is warm enough as long as the baby is dressed appropriately.

How warm should I dress my baby?

One rule of thumb is to dress your baby like you are dressed for that kind of day and a similar amount of activity (usually sleeping or quiet). The best way to tell if your baby is dressed warm enough is to look and touch his skin.

If these things do not make a difference and your baby continues to be uncomfortable, take your baby's temperature; your baby could be sick.

Illness and Taking Temperature

How can I tell if my baby is sick?

Parents are the best at knowing when their baby just doesn't seem to be acting the same. Some premature infants are more susceptible to colds or respiratory infections. Babies can become dehydrated (lose of fluid and nutrients) quickly. A change in your baby's response or behavior could be a sign that your baby is sick. These include:

Don't hesitate to call your pediatrician. No question is foolish or unimportant. Your doctor is there to answer all your questions.

How do I take my baby's temperature?

Axillary (underarm) temperatures :

Rectal (in the bottom) temperatures:

Oral temperatures should not be done with babies.

It is a good practice to have already taken the temperature when you call your doctor or go to an appointment for an illness.

It is always best to take the temperature rather than feel your baby's skin.

How do I know if my baby has a fever?

A fever is a temperature over 99 degrees Fahrenheit axillary or 100.5 degrees Fahrenheit rectally.

Your doctor should be called if :

Vomiting, Bowel Movement, and Diaper Rash

How can I tell the difference between spitting up and vomiting?

Spitting with a feeding is a common occurrence in prematures. It can also occur with a burp or soon after a feeding and may be called a "wet burp". It is usually only a small amount.

Vomiting is a continuous throwing up of large quantities of food or liquid, and occurs other than at feedings.

What is a normal bowel movement?

By the time your baby is ready to go home, his/her bowel movement will probably be yellow or light brown in color. Normal consistency is soft with some form or mushy. Some babies may have a bowel movement with every feeding and others may have one once every day or two.

If your baby has not had a bowel movement for 2-3 days and seems uncomfortable, or after that time has one in the form of hard pebbles, s/he may be constipated. Call your doctor. There may be well meaning friends who have home remedies to use for constipation but it is always best to check with your doctor instead.

Honey is NOT recommended for infants under 1 year of age.

If your baby does not seem uncomfortable and is eating well your baby may just be a baby who has infrequent bowel movements. Breast fed babies may not have bowel movements every day.

If your baby has frequent watery liquid stools in 6-8 hours time or seems to have looser stools more often than regular, your doctor should be called.

What should I do about diaper rash?

At one time or another all babies will have a rash in their diaper area. Some things to remember when this happens to your baby are:


How do I know if my baby is sleeping the right amount of time?

Premature babies may seem to sleep a great deal initially. They should be waking on a regular basis for feeding. By the time of discharge your baby has developed a routine of sleeping.

If your baby has its days and nights mixed up, it is best to minimize the stimulation during the night feeding time. Some ways you can do this are:

The adjustment to the home environment from the noisy nursery is difficult for some babies. Some suggestions to help your baby make this transition are:


How often should I bathe my baby?

You do not have to bathe your baby every day if you are keeping the diaper area clean with each diaper change. Baby's skin can dryout very quickly if bathed too often. A complete bath 1 or 2 times a week is sufficient.

Should I wash my baby's face?

Your babies face should be washed every day with a wash cloth and warm water. Pay attention to the folds under his chin where milk may collect. Most babies do not like to have their face washed and will wiggle and squirm. It helps to do one side of his face at a time, trying not to completely cover the face all at once.

How do I clean my baby's nose?

Wiping your baby's nose with a soft tissue will usually help remove extra secretions. If you have a bulb syringe be sure to push the air out of the bulb before gently inserting the very tip of the syringe into the nose. You do not want to use any force or squeeze the air into your baby's nose.

Stuffy Nose and Hiccups

What if my baby has a stuffy nose?

By adding humidity to the house, (turning on the shower, washing clothes or having a humidifier) it may help your baby to breath easier. If the stuffiness continues and your baby doesn't seem to be getting any better, it is wise to call the doctor to have it checked out. It could be a cold.

Are hiccups and sneezes normal?

Yes, hiccups and sneezes are normal. Normally the hiccups will just go away by letting them run their course. You can offer a little water and if you are breast feeding let him/her suckle at the breast for a minute or two.

Hiccups may also be a sign that your baby is feeling a little stressed and needs to have some quiet time.

Sneezes will help to clear the passages of your baby's nose. It is nature's way of helping the infant get rid of dust or other irritants. Persistent sneezing may be a signal that the nose needs to be cleared with the bulb syringe. Sneezing also occurs when your baby has a cold.

Growth and Development

Will my baby have any long term health problems?

Try to discuss any concerns you may have with your doctor. Your doctor can tell you if there is reason to suspect that there is concern about your baby's health in the future.

Will my babies growth be affected by prematurity?

It is impossible to tell how your child will grow in the future. Your baby's doctor will be following your baby's height, weight, and head measurement at each visit. Most children who were born prematurely attain their "genetic potential" for growth; that is, their adult height and weight are similar to their brothers and sisters. However, some preemies continue to grow slowly and are small adults. Preemies whose chances are greatest for remaining small are:

Will my baby's development be appropriate?

Your baby's doctor will assess if your baby is developing appropriately.

It is important that you follow the schedule for all follow up appointments. Some nurseries have developmental follow up clinics to assess development.

Keep in mind that if your baby was born early that it is normal to see slower growth and development. Remember do not compare your 3-month old with your neighbor's 3-month old who was full-term at birth. For more information, see Fostering Development After Discharge and the section on Later Problems of Former Preemies.


How often should I feed my baby?

Feeding patterns differ between babies and vary from day to day. Before discharge from your NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit), the nurses can give you an idea of your baby's feeding pattern. Most preemies feed every 2 1/2 - 4 hours.

Look for cues that your baby is hungry. Premature babies do not always cry, but may move around and become restless if it has been 2-3 hours since they last ate.

Often the doctor will want you to awaken your baby if it has been longer than 4 or 5 hours since the last feed. Discuss this with your doctor.

How much should I feed my baby?

A baby who weighs about 4 1/2 lbs. usually needs 12-15 ounces of formula or milk per day. A good way to see if your baby is getting enough to eat is to observe how many wet diapers he/she has in a 24 hour period. Your baby should have 6-8 wet diapers every day.

Most formula fed baby's will be taking 2-3 ounces every 3-4 hours when discharged from the hospital. If your baby is finishing the feeding in a shorter time and still acting hungry offer an extra ounce or two.

A breast feeding baby will usually increase its feeding time by sucking longer or wanting to eat more often. This builds up the mothers milk supply. Sometimes this means that your baby will want to eat every 2 hours until your supply will meet his/her demands.

Your doctor will check your baby's weight at each visit and let you know if the weight gain is appropriate.

Will my baby be able to nurse even though he/she has been taking the bottle at the hospital?

Most nurseries encourage the mothers to pump their breasts while their baby is in the hospital. The nurses will work with you and your baby once your baby is able to begin the process of sucking, swallowing and breathing.

Premature babies may take days or weeks to learn how to nurse. It is important to remember to be patient and try not to become discouraged if you have chosen to breast feed. There are times when this transition is not entirely successful; it is important to not feel guilty.

Our baby will be getting formula, what should we know about it?

There are three forms of formula: powdered, concentrate, and ready to feed.

The nutritional content of the three preparations of formula are the same.

Most formula found in stores has 20 calories per ounce. Your doctor will want you to use 20 calorie, unless she/he has specifically told you to use a higher calorie. It is very important to use only what the doctor has ordered.

Higher calorie formulas containing 24 or 27 calories per ounce, need to be ordered and can be very expensive. Here are recipes for mixing formula from powder or concentrate.

Powdered formula:

to make 20-calorie-per-ounce formula: 1 scoop powder + 2 ounces of water.

to make 24-calorie-per-ounce formula: 3 scoops powder + 5 ounces of water

Concentrated formula:

to make 20-calorie-per-ounce formula: 1 ounce concentrate + 1 ounce water.

to make 24-calorie-per-ounce formula: 3 ounces concentrate + 2 ounces water.

to make 27-calorie-per-ounce formula: 13 1/2 ounces concentrate + 6 1/2 ounces of water.

Never add more water than what is called for in the preparation. Follow the directions correctly.

How do I take care of the bottles and other equipment when using formula?

Bottles, nipples, measuring cups, containers, brushes and any other equipment used for feeding should be washed in hot, soapy water and then rinsed in hot, running water. Glass or metal pieces can be washed in the dishwasher.


Why do babies cry?

Crying is a form of communication. Your baby has different cries for different needs.

Frequent causes of crying are:

Your baby will develop a trust that you will be there when he cries if you respond to all crying. This sense of trust will be a necessary foundation in his development.

What can I do if my baby cries frequently?

Many premature babies will have days of frequent crying. They can be more sensitive to stimulation and they can be more sensitive to gas pains.

Many parents find that it is very difficult to keep in control during a frantic crying episode. Try to remain calm. Call for help especially if you feel so stressed that you fear that you might hurt the baby. It is always okay to check with your doctor, with any concern you may have.


What if my baby stops breathing during a feeding?

It is a common occurrence for a premature baby to have some breathing difficulty when they are eating. The baby is so busy sucking that he/she may forget to take a breath or to swallow. You might notice your baby becoming a little pale or "bluish" around their mouth, and not sucking. If this happens:

Should I take a CPR (Cardiopulminary Resuscitation) course before my baby comes home?

Learning CPR is appropriate for all parents whether or not their baby was born prematurely.

If your nursery offers CPR for children, it is a good idea to take the course. The Red Cross offers classes in adult and infant CPR also.

CPR prepares parents for an emergency if one should occur.

Going Out, Visitors, and Relatives

When can I take my baby out in public?

It is best not to take your baby out in public for the first three months after bringing your baby home from the hospital.

When you do take him/her out, try to avoid crowds of people who might have colds and other illnesses. Some of these places may be:

Should I allow visitors when my baby gets home?

When your baby gets home there will be many well meaning people who want to come and visit. Some things to keep in mind are:

How do I deal with people's reactions to my premature infant?

People may respond with surprise or concern about your premature baby's size.

They may be afraid to hold for fear of "breaking" your little one. This is a common response and they will need your reassurance that they will not harm your baby.

How can grandparents and other relatives help after discharge?

Grandparents can help with the care of siblings once you are home. Maybe an outing or an overnight at their house will help you and give the siblings a special time with their grandparents. Often there is very little energy left to handle regular day time living with other children. If possible having a grandparent come to stay for a short time can be a big help.

If there is a special relative whom you trust to stay with your little one, begin to take time with your spouse. Going for a walk or for a cup of coffee can help you keep in touch with each other.

Meals for the freezer or grocery shopping is another way for others to help.

While most relatives are well-meaning, there are those who give advice you do not want to hear or advice that is incorrect for your baby. Parents need to decide what is best for their family and whether visits or phone calls from others will help or hinder. You have come home equipped with the best knowledge to care for your baby and, as the parent, know what is best for your little one.

It is a stressful time for everyone. If you find just one person who will be there to listen and be your advocate, they can help you explain your needs to the others in your family.


What can grandparents/family/friends do to help?

The birth of a premature baby is an emotional time for everyone. As a grandparent you probably joyfully anticipated the birth of a healthy baby. It is natural to want to take your child's fears, pain and anxiety away, but that is not what s/he needs right now. The parent(s) of the new baby need to be supported. They are going through a life crisis.

Things to do that are helpful include:

What shouldn't I do as a grandparent, family, or friend?

Things which are NOT helpful include:

Interacting with Your Baby

How do I interact with my baby?

By visiting your baby in the hospital you have been getting to know your baby and your baby has been getting to know you.

Things that parents can do once you are home:

Premature babies are much more sensitive to stimulation. Some signals to watch for that would show that your baby might be getting tired are:

Remember to keep in mind that your baby needs to have short times of stimulation because he/she tires quickly.

How will I know if my baby needs something?

Premature babies may not always cry when they need something.

Ways to tell if your baby may need something are:


When should I get my baby immunized?

Immunizations may begin at the hospital before you leave to go home. Premature babies are usually immunized at the same age after birth as term babies.


Is cigarette smoking bad for my baby?

Exposing infants and children to any smoke is not good. No one should be allowed to smoke cigarettes in your house.


Can I lay my baby down on his stomach?

Even though preemies may be positioned for sleep on their stomachs in the nursery while they are on monitors, your baby should not be positioned on his/her stomach or side for sleeping at home unless specifically requested by your baby's doctor. You should put your baby lying down on his/her back for sleep.

While awake your baby can be either on his/her stomach or side lying. Tummy time is important for infants because it helps babies develop strength in their neck, legs and upper body. To help a baby with side lying, place your baby on either side with his bottom arm pulled slightly in front of him. This will prevent him from turning over to his stomach. It is also helpful to put a small blanket roll behind and next to his back to help support the side position. As babies get older they will roll to their back.


What activities can I do to foster normal development of muscle and muscle control in my preemie?

The following are age-specific activities that you and your baby can try. In all examples, age is determined by correcting for the weeks of prematurity; for example if your baby was two months early, activities listed at two months would be expected at four months. Another way is to use your baby's due date, not the actual date of birth.

Age 0-2 months

1-4 months

4-6 months

What things should I avoid during early development?

How can I foster mental development?

Mental development is fostered by:

What do babies of different ages like to do?

The following guidelines are from "Helping Baby Grow", WI Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Health, with permission (POH 4022, 9/97). A premature baby's age should be corrected for the weeks of prematurity; therefore, consider your baby's age from his/her due date, not from the actual date of birth.


Baby is able to:

Offer your baby:


Baby is able to:

Offer your baby:

4, 5 and 6 MONTHS

Baby is able to:

Offer your baby:

7, 8 and 9 MONTHS

Baby is able to:

Offer your baby:

10 -12 MONTHS

Baby is able to:

Offer your baby:

13-14 MONTHS

Child is able to:

Offer your toddler:

15-17 MONTHS

Child is able to:

Offer your toddler:

18-20 MONTHS

Child is able to:

Offer your child:


Child is able to:

Offer your child:

2 1/2 TO 3 YEARS

Child is able to:

Offer your toddler:

Child Safety

The following guidelines are from "Helping Baby Grow", WI Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Health, with permission (POH 4022, 9/97).

Miscellaneous Safety Checklist for Your Home:

Emergency Information

Electrical Safety

Kitchen Safety

Sleeping Safely

Car Seat/Motor Vehicle Safety

Fire Safety

Water Safely

Eating Safely

Sun Safety

Toy Safety

Gun Safety

Poison Prevention

Pedestrian Safety.

The Vulnerable Child

What is the Vulnerable Child Syndrome?

Sometimes parents continue to think of their former preemie as fragile and susceptible to problems even though the child is physically and developmentally healthy. They become overly protective, worry excessively, and unknowingly slow or change their child's development. The former preemie may fail to develop self confidence and/or a sense of independence.

How can I prevent the Vulnerable Child Syndrome?

First, try to interact with this child like you would if s/he had been born at term. Encourage socialization and age-appropriate activities. When considering expectations and when to introduce activities in the first two years of life, use the child's "corrected age", his/her age corrected for the number of weeks of prematurity. For example, if your baby is ten months old and was three months premature, your expectations should be that for a seven month old. After age two, you do not need to correct for prematurity.

Things you can do to prevent the vulnerable child syndrome:

Learning Problems

How common are learning problems in former preemies?

Learning deficits or learning disabilities at school age occur in about 10% of children born at term. They are more common in former preemies; the smaller and sicker the preemie, the greater the risk. Up to 45% of infants weighing <3 1/4 lbs. at birth have one or more abnormalities on testing at school age. It is usually not possible to predict at the time of discharge or during early development who might develop these problems. Sequential evaluation over time is the best predictor. Knowing what problems might develop can make you alert to signs of difficulty. Early diagnosis enables early evaluation and intervention. On the other hand, being overly concerned and always questioning your child's development may be detrimental in itself. Problems which are normal at a younger age may be abnormal at a later time. If you have a question about your child's development or performance, talk to your child's doctor or teacher or have your child tested.

What are the most common learning problems at school age?

Behavior Problems

Are behavior problems common?

Behavior is a complex interaction of a child's biologic vulnerabilities, innate strengths, a nurturing environment and parenting styles. A problem in any single area may lead to undesirable behaviors. A mismatch between these areas (for example a very strong-will child with a parent who is unable to set limits) can also emerge as behavior problems. Behavioral problems are not limited to infants who were born prematurely, but they are more common in former preemies. Children with other learning problems are at greater risk for behavioral problems, and behavioral problems can interfere with learning.

What behaviors might be a sign of future problems?

Behavior problems usually start before school age. They often are exaggerations of normal responses or behaviors, or persistence of behaviors beyond the usual age where they are common. Some of these include:

How will I know if my school age child has behavior problems?

Almost all children have periods of time when they misbehave or go through difficult stages. Your child's teacher or school will probably alert you if your child's behavior is out of the usual range. However, if you have concerns, discuss them with your child's teacher or pediatrician. Common signs of behavioral problems include:

The above listed behaviors usually catch a teacher's attention quickly. Another behavior pattern is one characterized by anxiety and withdrawal. Signs include the following:

What can I do about behavior problems?

Children who have these problems are often in need of greater structure in their environment and more defined limits. Sometimes parents of preemies are reluctant to set limits, enforce rules or deny their child's requests because the child had to go through so much in the early months or because they don't want to dampen their child's strong will that made him/her a survivor. But, consistency in rules and limits and more structure often lead to a more secure environment in which to develop. If behavior problems persist or get worse, discuss them with your child's doctor or pre-school teacher.

Eye and Vision Problems

What are some of the more common eye problems of former preemies?

The most common eye problems to appear after discharge are:

Although the above listed problems are more common in infants who have had ROP, they can occur in other preemies as well.

How will I know if my child has an eye problem?

If your child develops any of the following, your infant needs to see an ophthalmologist (eye doctor) very soon; s/he may have a serious vision problem.

Common problems can often be handled by your baby's regular doctor. These include:

If you have a question about your baby's sight or think your child may not see well, call your baby's physician or an eye doctor.

It is important to keep any eye appointment that was arranged at your baby's discharge, even if you do not think there is an eye problem.

How are eye problems treated?

Infants who have poor vision can be fitted with glasses. If the correction of vision would require very heavy or thick lens, soft contact lens may be prescribed. Other conditions, such as wondering eye and crossed eye, are treated with patching of one eye to encourage the use of the other eye. Early treatment is important for best visual outcome later on.

Why is early treatment so important?

When infants see much better out of one eye, or if using both eyes causes double vision, they will gradually stop using (seeing out of) the weaker eye. Visual pathways are still being established in the first few months and years of life. Making and keeping these connections requires regular use of the eye. If a child "blocks out" vision in one eye during this critical period in eye development, these connections are not established and cannot be made at a later age. Sight from two eyes is necessary for determining what is close and far away (depth perception). Poor vision may slow mental development and physical progress in many areas such as recognition of objects, learning symbols such as letters or pictures, and motor activities such as walking or climbing.

Hearing Problems

How common are hearing problems in preemies?

Children can also develop hearing loss after birth during childhood.

How will I know if my baby has a hearing problem?

Many nurseries screen babies for hearing. Commonly used hearing tests are:

If my baby does not pass the screening test, is s/he deaf?

Hearing tests are designed to not miss a possible hearing problem. There are many "false positives" or abnormal tests in babies who eventually turn out to have normal hearing. Things that cause false positive tests include:

Some medical problems of preemies cause changes in hearing which go away when the problem resolves. For that reason, babies are usually tested near the time of discharge, not when they are the sickest.

Any abnormal screening test must be verified by another test at later point in time.

After discharge how will I know if my child has a hearing problem?

The following is a check list for hearing.

All ages listed are based on the child's age from his/her due date, not the date of birth.

Hearing is often decreased during a cold or ear infection. When children are young, their speech and communication may be noticeably poorer during a cold or ear infection, but should return to the previous level after the illness.

What should I do if I suspect my child has a hearing problem?

Notify your child's doctor of your concern and make arrangements to have his/her hearing tested. This testing should be done at your earliest convenience and when your child does not have a cold or ear infection. Do not delay several months; early detection of hearing loss is very important!

Why is early detection of hearing loss so important?

Hearing is essential for speech and language development. The sooner a hearing loss is detected, the sooner the child can be treated and the better language and speech s/he will develop.

How is hearing loss treated?

If there is some hearing, sounds can be amplified (increased) by a hearing aids. If the loss is severe, children may also be taught other forms of communication such as sign language or lip reading. Speech and hearing therapists can teach you how to best communicate with your child. Specialists must determine the location of the hearing problem (outer, middle or inner ear) before deciding on the best treatment.


What are common dental problems of former preemies?

The most common dental problems are:

Why do preemies have more dental problems than term babies?

We do not know all of the reasons for these problems, but some common factors are:

How will I know if my child's teeth have enamel problems?

Often small abnormalities in enamel formation are not visible. More severe abnormalities are:

What problems should I expect if my child's teeth have poor emamel?

When the emamel of the tooth is poorly formed, it is much easier for the tooth to develop cavities.

What can I do to prevent tooth decay?

It is very important to do the following:

Which teeth are most likely to be abnormal?

The baby teeth are most often affected with enamel problems. Sometimes the first permanent teeth to come in are affected also, but usually to a lesser degree. These include the front teeth (incisors) and the first permanent molars (six-year molars).

What can be done for my baby's abnormal teeth?

Often problems look worse than they actually are. Good dental care and regular teethbrushing may be all that is needed. Cavities can be filled just as for any child with a dental cavity.

What can be done for my baby's high arched palate?

The shape of the palate can effect many things, including speech and bite. As your child gets older, the shape of the palate, along with other factors, determine if your child needs braces or other orthodontics. Most children seem to adapt to the shape of their palate and will compensate if their palate is higher than normal.

Will my child need braces later on?

The need for braces is determined by many factors including the shape of the palate and the presence of a cross-bite. The chances that your preemie will need braces are probably a little higher than average.

When should my preemie first see a dentist?

Pediatric dentists prefer to see children at a very young age. The current recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry is for any child to see the dentist by his/ her first birthday. Since preemies are known to have more dental problems, this early exam is often beneficial. At this visit your dentist may:

No matter what the age, if you notice any questionable areas in your child's teeth, make a dental appointment.


What do we know about the experience of pain in the baby?

Many procedures and conditions experienced in the NICU involve some pain for the baby. Yet, there are many different opinions on how much the newborn experiences pain, how to tell whether a baby is experiencing pain, and what should be done to relieve pain.

Do babies experience pain?

For adults and older children, we know that there are two parts to a painful experience.

For babies, we know that:

How will I know if my baby is experiencing pain?

Unfortunately, there is no one behavior or set of behaviors or physiological signs (heart rate, breathing rate, blood pressure, oxygen levels), that we know for sure mean that a baby is in pain.

A baby may show the following signs that we interpret as indicating pain:

Or, a baby may instead show:

Babies may show these same behaviors when they are upset or agitated but there is no reason to suspect pain, such as when they are being diapered or are having trouble breathing.

There are now several tools designed to help determine when a baby is in pain. They usually rate how irritable the baby appears (crying, whimpering, grimacing), change in activity level, change in sleep patterns, change from usual ways of responding, and stability of physiological signs (heart rate, breathing, oxygen levels). If a tool like this is used by the nurses in your nursery, becoming familiar with it may help you as a parent to understand your baby's responses when there is reason to suspect pain. These tools are only rough guides; there is as yet no sure way to know when your baby actually is experiencing pain.

How can we relieve pain and discomfort for the baby?

There are a number of drugs that can be used for relieving the sensory experience of pain in babies. However, all drugs have disadvantages as well as benefits. Different nurseries prefer different drugs. To find out which drugs might be used for your baby, consult the nurses and physicians in your nursery.

Sometimes, the physician or nurse may decide that using a drug to reduce pain is more harmful to the baby than the experience of pain. For example, drugs used for pain may cause the blood pressure to fall, impair the baby's ability to breathe, or hide a fever.

There are a number of other ways to help relieve the sensory experience of pain and help the baby cope with the experience of pain or discomfort.

Responding quickly to signs of pain or discomfort gives the baby some control. A pacifier also gives some control -- the baby can stop and start sucking or adjust the strength of sucking.

Do all babies respond the same to soothing efforts?

No, babies will react in different ways to these attempts to soothe them. For example, for some babies being touched or rocked is not soothing, and for others, sounds or music also may not be calming. It always is important to carefully watch how the baby responds when trying any of the suggested ways to relieve pain or discomfort. Try something else if what you are doing seems to be more stressful than helpful.

When we experience pain or discomfort, each of us tries to deal with it or adapt to it in ways that work for us. Therefore, rather than trying to identify a set of specific behaviors or signs that mean your baby is in pain, it is more helpful to learn how each individual baby tries to cope with being upset or uncomfortable, and what works best to help him or her feel more comfortable.